1. Loew TH, Sohn R, Martus P, et al. Functional relaxation as a somatopsychotherapeutic intervention: A prospective con- trolled study. Altern Ther Health Med 2000;6:70–75.
  2. Boyce et al. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation training, and routine clinical care for the irritable bowel syndrome. American Journal of Gastroenterolgoy. 2003; 98(10): 2209-18.
  3. Functional relaxation as complementary therapy in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 2010 Jan;16(1):47-52
  4. Shinozaki M et al. Effect of autogenic training on general improvement in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback. 2010 Sep;35(3):189-98.
  5. van der Veek PPJ, van Rood YR, Masclee AAM. Clinical trial: short- and long-term benefit of relaxation training for irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2007 Sep 15;26(6):943-52
  6. Shaw et al. Stress management for the irritable bowel syndrome. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 1988; 13(2):169-179.
  7. Palsson OS and Drossman DA.  Psychiatri and psychological dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome and the role of psychological treatments. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2005; 34:281-303.
  8. Lackner JM.  No pain, no gain: The role of cognitive processes in irritable bowel syndrome. J of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2005;19(2): 125-136.
  9. Keefer L and Blanchard EB. The effects of the relaxation response meditation on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: results of a controlled treatment study. Behav Res Therapy. 2001; 39:801-11.
  10. Drossman et al.Cogntive-behavioral therapy versus education and desipramine versus placebo for moderate to severe functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:9-31


  1. Galovski TE, Blanchard EB. The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with hypnotherapy. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 1998;23(4):219–32.
  2. Palsson OS, Turner MJ, Johnson DA, Burnett CK, Whitehead WE. Hypnosis treatment for severe irritable bowel syndrome: investigation of mechanism and effects on symptoms. Dig Dis Sci 2002;47(11):2605–14.
  3. Roberts L, Wilson S, Singh S, Roalfe A, Greenfield S. Gut directed hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: piloting a primary care-based randomised controlled trial.Br J Gen Pract 2006;56(523):115–21.
  4. Whorwell PJ, Prior A, Faragher EB. Controlled trial of hypnotherapy in the treatment of severe refractory irritable- bowel syndrome. Lancet 1984;2(8414):1232–4.
  5. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007(4)
  6. Gonsalkorale WM, Houghton LA, Whorwell PJ. Hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome: A large-scale audit of a clinical service with examination of factors influencing responsiveness. Am J Gastroenterology. 2002; 97: 954-61.
  7. Gholamrezaei A, Ardestani SK, Emami MH. Where does hypnotherapy stand in the management of irritable bowel syndrome? A systematic review.Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(6):517-27.
  8. Gonsalkorale WM. Gut-directed hypnotherapy: the Manchester approach for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis. 2006 Jan;54(1):27-50.
  9. Harvey et al. Individual and group hypnotherapy in the treatment of refractory irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet 1989; 1:424-25.

General CAM

  1. Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults: conventional and complementary/alternative approaches. Alternative Medicine Review. 2011 Jun;16(2):134-51.
  2. Spanier JA, Howden CW, and Jones MP. A systematic review of alternative therapies in the irritable bowel syndrome. 2003. Archives of Internal Medicine; 163: 265-74.
  3. Taneja I, Deepak KK, Poojary G, et al.  Yogic versus conventional treatment in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized control study.  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2004;29:19-33.

Dietary Approaches

1. Food: the forgotten factor in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 2011 Mar;40(1):141-62.

2. The role of diet in symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in adults: a narrative review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009 Jul;109(7):1204-7

3. Williams EA, Nai X, Corfe BM. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Gastroenterology. 2011;11:9. 

4. Cabre E. Irritable bowel syndrome: can nutrient manipulation help? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2010 Sep;13(5):581-7.

5. Doerfler B, Keefer L. Considering the necessity of a very low carbohydrate diet on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.Clinical Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010 Jan;8(1):98.

6. Wang P, Tang X, Wu T, Liu G. Probiotic agents for the treatment of diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009(1)

7. Shepherd SJ, Parker FC, Muir JG, Gibson PR. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clinical Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2008 Jul;6(7):765-71

8. Kanazawa M, Fukudo S. Effects of fasting therapy on irritable bowel syndrome. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2006;13(3):214-20

9. Fletcher PC, Schneider MA. Is there any food I can eat? Living with inflammatory bowel disease and/or irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Nurse Specialist. 2006 Sep-Oct;20(5):241-7

10. Gertner D, Powell-Tuck J. Irritable Bowel syndrome and food intolerance. Practitioner. 1994;238(1540):499-504

11. Giaccari S et al. Partially hydrolized guar gum: a fiber as coadjuvant in the irritable colon syndrome. Clin Ther. 2001:152;21-25.

12. Comprehensive Elimination Diet. In: Jones DS, ed. Textbook of Functional Medicine. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine; 2005:764-8

13. Bijkerk et al.  Systematic review: the role of different types of fibre in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmocol There. 2004; 19(3):245-51.

14. Fernandez-Banares et al. Sugar malabsorption in functional bowel disease: clinical implications. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993; 88(12):2044-50

15. Galland L. Integrative approach to the gastrointestinal system. Integrative Medicine: Principles for Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2004.

16. Lea R, Whorwell PJ. The role of food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2005;34(2):247-55.

17. Paterson et al. Recommendations for the management of irritable bowel syndrome in family practice. IBS Consensus Conference Participants. CMAJ. 1999;161(2):154-60

Natural medicine and Probiotics

  1. Kajander K et al. A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a controlled 6 -month intervention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;22(5):387-394.
  2. Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Brikenfeld B. A controlled, double-blinded, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001; 13(10):1143-47.
  3. O’Sullivan MA, O’Morian CA. Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Dig Liver Dis. 2000;32(4):294-301.
  4. Kline RM et al. Enteric-coated, pH-dependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children. J Pediatr. 2001;183:125-8.

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